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- Biographical Notes
Registered for the draft on June 5, 1917 as a C.O.; drafted on Nov. 22, 1917; sent to Camp Devens (MA); classified as 3, later as 1B?; objected to war on Socialist and humanitarian grounds; refused to wear uniform or perform military duties; put in guardhouse at Ft. Riley on Aug. 30, 1918; interviewed by Board of Inquiry at Devens[??] in June 1918, Leavenworth in July 1918, and at the Disciplinary Barracks [Ft. Leavenworth] on Feb. 14, 1919, deemed to be "insincere"; named on Judge Advocate file card entitled CONSCIENTIOUS OBJECTOR: "This office can take notice of the fact that by the usual procedure where the Board of Inquiry on Conscientious Objector [sic] has reported to the Secretary of War that it has examined certain men and believes them not to be sincere conscientious objectors, The Adjutant General by indorsement [sic] addressed to the commanding general of the particular camp, directs that such men be ordered to military duty and in case of their failure to perform such duty that proper disciplinary action be taken. The informal manner in which the direction of The Adjutant General was made to appear without offering the Order itself in evidence was open to serious criticism, even though the technical formalities required by the civil courts are not mandatory upon courts-martial. In any event the error was not prejudicial to the substantial rights of the accused. 10/21/1918"; courts-martial trial #119858; sentenced to 30 years in prison - reduced to 3 years; imprisoned in Ft. Douglas War Prison Barracks; was still in prison in April 1920.