Diary of David Eichel, 1917




Diary of David Eichel, 1917




WWI conscientious objection / objectors


Camp Upton


Eichel, David


Swarthmore College Peace Collection


Swarthmore College Peace Collection


Copyright is retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law.










My Experiences in Connection with the Draft

1. Registered June 6 - 1917. as a C.O.

.Called for Med Ex.

Refused to submit to Med. Xam. submitting written statement for such refusal.

[October 6, 1917] Deputy Marshall called with warrant for my arrest. Agreed to meet him next morning at 9 A.M.

[October 7, 1917] Appeared before U.S. Ass. Dis. Att. Johnson -- with Mr. S. and Marshall, arraigned before Com. Hitchcock. Classified by latter as deserter, held without bail, remitted to the Tombs to await ruling from Wash.

[October 7, 1917] Put in same cell with Richard McKenzie, a religious C.O., nephew of John D., college chum of U.S. Dist. Att. Content.[?] Very influential Put me in touch with the Civil Liberties Bureau.

[October 12, 1917] Released from custody by Commissioner. Released upon my own recognizance on condition that I pledge to report, upon receiving my red card either to camp or else back to the Commissioner.

[December 6, 1917] Red card ordered me to report on that day. At 10 A.M. appeared before Dist. Attorney Johnson.

At 1 P.M. sent to Adj. Gen. Kopps. Put in custody of 2 police. Taken to 6th precinct. Frisked for valuables, or dangerous weapons. Taken before local board. Given papers, all except medical report. Taken to Fort Jay. Gov. Is. Serg’t Major refused to accept us, because we hadn’t been xamined. Taken back to City. Dropped off in 2nd prec’t. Met Kirkland twice.

[December 7, 1917] Police called at 8 A.M. Took us before local board. Again refused to be xamined. Kept there until 4 P.M. All agencies of Gov’t refused to accept us. Called upon C.L.B. for legal aid. Spent night again at 2nd precinct.

[December 8, 1917] Appeared again before Ass. Dist. Att. Gen. with Grunzig as our representative. Remitted to the Tombs on old warrant until Monday morning. One day at Tombs we suddenly received notice that we had two hours in which to make up our minds to go to Camp, or else we’ll be sent to Fort Hamilton. Determined to wait. Nothing materialized.

[December 28, 1917] U.S. Dept. Marshall called for us and took us to Gov. Is. Major accepted us. Spent night in guard house - ate first decent meal in pretty near a month.

[December 29, 1917]

10 A.M. taken before major and asked whether willing to become a soldier. Answered “no.” Called coward.

11 A.M. Sent over for wood. Went out after protest. Ears and finger tips frost bitten.

1 P.M. Again taken to Headq’s and transportation papers given to armed escort.

3 P.M. Arrived in Penn Depot with a total of 5 prisoners and 3 armed guards.

8:30 P.M. Reached Camp Upton. Stopped at

outpost #1. Sent to other outpost. Then to Detention barrack. Spent night there, no beds furnished. Stayed awake all night, bitter cold. Had breakfast at the Detention barrack. Found guards friendly and even sympathetic.

[December 30, 1917] Sunday. Taken to Casual Barracks. Just picked bed next to Sterenstein another C.O. Also explained our stand to Lieut. Scofield. Paid my first visit to barber. Took first haircut since incarceration. Also took over one weeks growth off my face. At 7 P.M. paid my first visit to C.O. camp. Met Grunzig and Monsky there. Tried to have doctor fool Julius into Xam.

[December 31, 1917] Monday. At the Casuals. 7 P.M. Went outside the Camp grounds and bought “Artic.” New Years we [met a] man taken with delirium Tremens, yelled has lost $30. Lieut. called roll at 2 A.M. Thought he ordered us out of bed to search us for lost money. [January 1, 1918] Tuesday. New Years. 1 P.M. Left barrack without permission. When we returned called before Lieut. Scofield and told we were to be punished. Informed him we considered ourselves guests.

9 P.M. Julius ordered to do fire-guard duty from 4 to 6 A.M. as punishment. He refused - tied to bench near stove all night.

[January 2, 1918] Wed. At Casuals. 9 P.M. Left barracks without permission. Called before Lieut. Connick. Punished us - had 2 guards see that we do not sit or rest from 9 to 1 A.M. Sergeant tried to incite us to violence.

Julius kicked thru doorway for refusing to stand at Attention.

[January 3, 1918] Thurs. 3 P.M. Taken to Div. Headq’s. Spoke to Major Gresco - offered non-com. service. Also asked to submit to med Xam. Refused both. Returned. 4 P.M. Again taken to Div. Headq’s. Saw[?] Brig. Gen. Johnson. Quoted penalty, and

informed us that we were bound for the C.O. Barrack. 8 P.M. Lieut. Maushauser introduced us to C.O. barrack and bunch.

[January 1, 1918] Capt. Patterson and Lieut. Maushauser called for us and took us over to mustering office for Med. Xam. Refused to submit. Forced thru one. For 2 hours we argued with all sorts of officers

upon the advisability of submitting to the Xam. Then given 10 minutes to make up our minds whether or not we are going to take it willingly. After 10 minutes we were forced thru it. Cap. Freeman did not seem to relish the idea. He stood close by and saw that we were handled gently. We would give them no aid in the Xam. Refused to read. Would not repeat for ear test. Would not breathe for heart action and lung. At the end Cap. Freeman offered a sort of apology for the treatment given us. Told him that he

wasn’t to blame. We realized he was only a soldier and had to obey superiors. Thanked us.

[January 4, 1918 continued?] Capt. McLaughlin has introduced a new order forcing us to go out with a non-com. officer. Have refused to abide by it, because it makes voluntary slaves of us. [February 6, 1918] Gave final instructions that the non-com. were to restrain us physically if necessary. Informed Cap. that we would not go out as a protest.

[February 7, 1918] Thursday. Eight Soc. C.O. decided not to do any work at all as protest. Wanted Gov’t to feed us, since we were prisoners. Decided to eat until refused food. Sent note to Cap.

[February 8, 1918] Friday. Had breakfast. Saw by men’s faces at noon that they did not want me to partake of dinner and therefore did not. Forced to go without food. Cap. called upon us. Would not feed us. Said his idea of perfect govt was perfect monarchy[?]. Advised us not to think so much. Let others study and direct you. Promised to have us all in uniform in 30 days.

[February 10, 1918] Sunday. Sam, Lip, Reisner, Rosen visited us - learned of our hunger strike or rather forced starvation.

[February 11, 1918] Monday. Comrades visited us. Told them in front of Cap. to go to Dis. H. and find out why we were being starved. Asked Cap. to take us to Div. Headq.

[February 12, 1918] Tues. 12 Noon. At Div. H. Brig. Gen. Johnson informed us that he doesn’t care about us, never thinks of us, except when we annoy him. He works for the Gov’t. Doesn’t care if we starve. Would allow us to starve until collapse and then feed us forcibly. Told us that if some soldiers killed us they would be justified. Called off hunger strike. Received letter from Roger N. Baldwin advising

us to call off strike.

[February 13, 1918] Miss Eimer[sp?] visited us. Informed us of resolution. Changed it and asked her to send it off. Rosenberg received letter from C.L.B. suggesting end of starvation or strike. Stopped resolution.

[February 14, 1918] Friday [Thursday]. Brig. Gen. Johnson visited us at Barrack with other unknown visitors. Christie Elmer announced he had accepted non-com. service. Among visitors with Gen. was Assistant Secy War Crowell.

[February 17, 1918] Willie Ornstein and Moe Greenspan visited us. Met Mike Priest at the station.

[February 19, 1918] Taken to doctor for Xam. Sent back. Xamined before.

[February 20, 1918] The I.B.S. were taken to city and cross-examined by Dist. Att. Were gone all day. Bklyn Dist. Att.

[February 21, 1918] Eichel Bros., Christie Bros, Ruiz taken to the mustering office to be inducted into service. No records found and therefore not inducted.

Sterenstein, Christie Bros., Ruiz, Julius and I taken to Div. Surgery for completion of records. S. Sterenstein, A. Christie & Ruiz forced thru Xam.

[February 24, 1918] Sunday. Papa visited us. Left very impressed. Took Papa for a walk thru the woods. Grunzig read a very important notice to us. [February 25, 1918] Monday. Julius, Christie Bros., Ruiz, Sterenstein, & I mustered into service. Great big farce - none of us signed - some of us refused to answer questions. Met Sidney Jackson

now sergeant, and Maury Brown, on road. Notified that we were to use 20th Co. mess hall. Henry Klein arrived in camp.

[February 26, 1918] Tuesday. Had our first meal with the 20th Co. Did not give us full rations.

[February 7, 1918] Wed. Phillips, Chas Francis was brought in.

[March 2, 1918] Sat. Phillips taken to see Gen. Johnson. Refused to accept non-com. service. Then told that he was to be released as a felon. To be discharged Monday. Discharged same day. Hurried out of camp on 5:30 P.M. train.

[March 4, 1918] Monday. 2 men, Koretz[Koritz?] - cousins, Polish, Socialists - brought in today. Were in camp one month. Refused to put on uniform. Can’t speak English. Exchanged bed[?] of men on hike to Corham.

[March 8, 1918] At 7:30 A.M. started on a hike to Shoreham. Probably 7 1/2 miles in each direction – beautiful seashore summer resort. Two men took a dip in the surf.

[March 9, 1918] Curtis gave Julius haircut. Just took 2 hours to do it.

[March 10, 1918] Sunday. Anna Wenger, Sam and Perl[?] Yanofsky visited us.

[March 12, 1918] Tuesday. Mauray returned from hospital. Expects to be discharged as constitutional psychopathic state.

[March 13, 1918] Rosenburg taken to Hosp. Sick with grippe.

[March 15, 1918] Friday. All taken to Base Hosp. at 2 P.M. Examined by Maj. Hammond, Capt. Rosanoff & Lieut. Morsch. All alienists.

[March 16, 1918] Miss Witherspoon and [Bruno] Grunzig visited us. Went with Wortsmann and Mauray to Hosp. to see Rosenberg. While there Wortsmann overheard a Cap. talking to some lady about Mauser[?]. ‘See that fellow – he’s to be discharged because of a peculiar frame of mind while your son and mine must fight.” Curtis gave me a haircut.

[March 17, 1918] Henry Klein and Eddie Frankel visited me. Eddie left $20 with me. Curtis put the finishing touches to the haircut.

[March 18, 1918] Jay Ferguson ordered to report to hosp. for duties[?].

[March 19, 1918] Rosenberg came back from the hosp. Ferguson came up this evening in uniform and told us that they had forced it on him.

[March 21, 1918] Secret Service Man from Intelligence Dept. interview B[rest of name illegible] about “Finished Mystery.” Ferguson is dumped from bed every morning and mistreated.

[March 22, 1918] Refused bread pudding at mess.

[March 23, 1918] Ferguson tied to a tree. Loosened bonds and came here. Assigned to 9th Co. Med.[?]. Julius, Sterenstein, Christie, Ruiz, Bowes refused inoculation.

[March 24, 1918] Sunday. Had a real reunion of Willett [?], Strickler[?], Joe & Frank August, Stemple, Lindner, Jack Snyder (moving picture, Aster[?], two Hymans, John. The terrorist theory inaugurated.

[March 25, 1918] Serg’t Engh went to City after Ferguson. Louis Rosenberg mustered in and examined. Expects to be discharged. Physically unfit. Thomas rec’d telegram from Quaker organization informing him that Pres. was going to make a new ruling as to what non-com. service is. Piled ash cans, bench,

brooms, mops, pails etc. on Brex and Campbells beds. Refused C.O. Pudding. Terrorist theory in full sway.

[March 26, 1918] Walked for first time on Road to New York. Louis Rosenberg discharged today. Organic Heart Disease. Serg’t Engh came back without Ferguson. Mozee asked Gen. Johnson for furlough on Pass-over holiday. While there Maj. Griscom asked about Ferguson and seemed to be worried about the affair. Saw Henry Allenbogen[?] again. Saw him Sunday at Station.

Saw Cap. Oglive at the Brigade hospital in reference to being inoculated. Christie and Ruiz claimed Christian objections. I’m[?] with[?] you. I & Julius – humanitarian. “Well that all right but it doesn’t go far enough. Sterenstein socialist. “I’m against you.” “Im socialist too. Well Im surprised.”

[March 29, 1918] Monsky came to the C.O. Barracks. Tied his bed with string and also fixed Lou

[March 30, 1918] Ferguson came back with Corp. Eicth[?]. All declared sane as


[March 31, 1918] Phil and Willie visited us. Brought us $15 from Ornstein, Sam, Irving.

[April 1, 1918] Our names and records all sent to Secy of War Baker. Uniformed man, former mess segt of 20th Co. came up, Ill-informed and began telling us how he used to treat C.O. by giving them steak and potatoe to fry on incinerator. When he learned we were all C.O. he just staggered out completely crushed.

[April 2, 1918] Capt. McLoughlin spoke about removing the “night cans.” He then spoke about the four non-com. services to be offered us. Advised us strongly to accept. Lieut. Mauschauser asked us to give a short statement as to how we regard the accepting of service and also our reasons. My statement. As a humanitarian & Soc. I cannot consistently accept any service either combattant or non-combattant. I consider human life more valuable than the ideals we are fighting

for. All the non com. service offered is essential to the successful prosecution of this war and therefore I can not accept any.

[April 4, 1918] Mauray discharged.

[April 8, 1918] Capt. Hayes gave us a Psychological test, written test.

[April 9, 1918] Louis Rosenberg discharged. Capt. Hayes interviewed us today, one at a time. His interview as near as I can remember it is written out on paper.

[April 12, 1918] Adler, Dacks[?] and Cohen

placed in barracks next to us. Adler as crazy as ever. Don’t blame you for being against war. Cohen says I’m foolish. You took too great a step. Watch me. I’ll go about it gradually. I’ve got a way of my own.

[April 20, 1918] Martin O.Bowin given one weeks leave to see his sick mother. Great stuff. Think he’ll be discharged.

[April 21, 1918] Langman & Frankel visited us. Langman left $20.00.

[April 22, 1918] Julius Katz C.O. Drafted

to Camp Upton in Sept. sent to Camp Gordon Dec. 5. Sent back to Camp Upton Apr. 13. Socialist. Saw Gen Bell today for first time.

[April 24, 1918] Mama and Clara visited us. Left very much relieved

[April 25, 1918] Moved to 15th Co. Depot Brigade. Mauschauser informed Katz that he doesn’t belong with us.

[April 26, 1918] Katz taken away from us. Mauschauser informed us that if Katz were caught

speaking to us, the non-coms were at liberty to pommel him up. Moved again - back to 20th Co. to barrack 1816B. An article appeared in newspaper that Ed Murray[?] had changed his mind and was trying to enlist in the aviation corps. Think this another newspaper bunco. Man from H.W.A. came around and asked us why we do not sign allotment slips.

[April 28, 1918] Bowin returned.

[April 29, 1918] Complained to Lieut. Mauschauser about

food and since then have fared very well. Threatened to remove mess sergeants stripes if there was more trouble of this kind.

[May 1, 1918] Told to stay in all day. Gen. Bell is expected. Judge Rutherford called on the I.B.S. men.

[May 2, 1918] Lieut. Mauschauser came around for his monthly statement. No addition to his former statement. Lee Anderson etc. were attacked last night by six non-coms. with

bricks bats water etc. Anderson fled from camp & went to Wash. Biel was notified by telephone and special Del.

[May 2 [3?], 1918] Learned that our mail was being censored. Noticed that the return addresses were erased by steam.

[May 4, 1918] Met Pipa[?] Hymine[?] at [illegible word]. Told us that tho he is above draft age, he registered to fool the Gov’t. but he came to his senses too late. Told us that Peck[?] Minor was across, over three mos already. Sg’t. Engh went on Furlough.

[May 5, 1918] Met Joe Goodman today. Surprised at my stand. Sterenstein informed me that Rabbi Kaplan was around to see us. Saw Bklyn dodgers make monkeys of the Brigade baseball team. Wortsman first game.

[May 6, 1918] Anderson I.B.S.[International Bible Student] made[man] who fled from night attacks returned to camp. Said he was here only on a visit. Went home again.

[May 7, 1918] Tuesday. Noon - forest fire broke out while we were at mess. Sgt. Barkin ordered men out to fight it. Watched them in their feeble attempt to overcome it. On way to P.O. saw Trix’s sister pass us in auto. Saw her again at acre[?] store. Did not speak to her. Saw a gang of Scheriff St.[?] boys at the store. Saw Joe Goodman with pick ax.

[May 8, 1918] Miss T. Wert[?] and Mrs. Bertha Mailey & Grunzig visited us today. Miss. W. to

see Gen. Bell Friday.

[May 9, 1918] Walked to Middletown. Took a swim in Artists’ lake, all nude. Immediately after our arrival from the P.O. we were ordered down for Xam at 215 - 14th St. We waited there almost two hours, but finally told to go home that they could not attend to us. When we returned, several of the men noticed that our personal belongings had been tampered with and several letters had disappeared. The matter was taken

up with Mauschauser. He questioned Sg’t. Yensen and according to the latter he had been ordered by some officer to stand at the doorway and watch that no one interrupted them. It so happened that thru him Sterenstein and Jasmagy were prevented from surprising the officers.

[May 11, 1918] Sgt. Viesh[?] reported to us to day that he could state authoritatively that our mail was not being opened at the Camp P.O. and that the men who had raided our barracks were not headquarter or army men.

At night - caught in rain, ran home, perspired and therefore decided to take a shower. Storm increased. While dressing, Seidenberg came in rather disgusted and dejected, all soaked, and told me of his transfer back to the 13th Co. of brick bat and water fame - and also that the COs had been paraded down to the Buffalo theatre against their will. Wortsmann and Thomas came in. In the meanwhile the storm had increased perceptibly. Suddenly there was a binding flash, bang bang, and all darkness. W. cried anybody hurt & grabbed T. who cried all’s

well, what happened. Lightening struck, W. & S. felt the shock. T. & I escaped because we were on a board. Greatest display of lightening I’ve ever witnessed.

[May 11 [12?], 1918] At 6 P.M. to 7:45 Maj. Gen. Bell spoke to us at our barrack in reference to non-com. service. Told us the each one who does not signify his willingness to accept alternative service would be assigned to duty to some non-com. work and if he refused to accept & obey orders he would be court-martialed. Told us that if we had any com-

communication we should send it to him Monday. Also agreed to interview all the I.B.S. men - Klein, & Koretz with S. Sterenstein as interpreter. Practically all the new COs were present, 7 in actual no. I feel the I.B.S. men and Klein will accept non-com. service.

[May 13, 1918] Bowin reported that Gen. Bell informed him that every thing going on in the C.O. barrack is known to Headqs. He even quoted what I had written to Trix to the effect with the possible exception of the General we were the most popular men

in camp. We also learned that the I.B.S. men all accepted work in hosp. Colier and Mr. Cowan were also at Headqs. They were invited to have a seat. While seated the Gen. passed. Attention was called. All stood except the two negros. Bell ordered them to get up: Mr. Cowan got up, Colier refused. He was again ordered up or rather the Gen. asked Mr. C. - who is this man? Collier got up to explain. He was ordered to stand at attention. He answered that he doesnt stand at attention. The Gen. then kicked his feet together and shoved him. In the afternoon he was again ordered to

stand at attention. Again he refused. A captain ordered him to stand up because Bell was in the room. Collier got up and walked up. The captain followed and ordered him back. He refused. The capt. noted the fact, in writing, probably sullen and defiant. He was finally brought before the Gen. and asked why he had so consistently refused to honor him, when all the officers of the Division did so. Collier answered I respect your gray hair but I have no cause to respect your rank, or words to that effect. My personal opinion

of the matter is that Collier is due to be court-martialed as sullen and defiant, and that the whole affair was pre-arranged and premeditated. Sam reported that the Gen. was going to discharge the two Koretz’s and then have them search out the two detectives that arrested them and have them punished, for he felt that the two detect. made the arrest in order to obtain $100 reward ($50 for each man). All the other COs brought here and quartered in room beneath us. Katz with us again.

[May 14, 1918] A lieut. came up and Vieth[?] called attention. The I.B.S. men got up but stood rather abashed and dejected. A sort of apology for attention. Saw Gravy[?] in uniform.

[May 15, 1918] Was vac. and inoc. today. Christie turned deathly pale. Thomas was bawled out today by a lieut. for not standing up when the Nat. Anthem was played. Thomas was bawled out before a whole gang of men.

[May 16, 1918] Miss W. [Witherspoon] and [Bruno] Grunzig visited us and spoke to us concerning our dangerous position.

[May 17, 1918] The I.B.S. men rec’d their uniforms. I was particularly impressed by Ferguson’s willingness now when only a month or so [ago] he endured all sorts of abuse for refusal to do what he was now not in the least averse to doing. Strange this sad and sudden and surprisingly uniform change of heart and mind of five men - and all five members of the same religious sect. At about 4 P.M. Gen. Bell, Col. Woodward, Lieut. Mauschauser with 5 more

men (caps. & lieuts.) came to our barracks. As usual, with no intent at disrespect, none of us arose. The Gen. then asked us to step to the rear of the room. He then indignantly informed us that our etiquette was very poor, in fact disrespectful. But of course, such is not the case. He warned us that he had the power to punish us for it if he so chose, but his attitude to me at least appeared that such was not his intention. He then informed us that this was the last time we were to be consulted in reference to accepting non-com. service. He called each man individually and asked him whether he wanted service in any branch (he had previously

read again the various branches of non-com. service). He began with [illegible name] and ended with me. With the exception of the I.B.S. men, nobody accepted service. He then ordered Lieut. Mauschauser to put all men who accept service downstairs and all men who are absolutists upstairs. He then called Sterenstein and asked him to inform the Koritzs that they were to be discharged and instructed Col. Woodward to see to the immediate discharge of these men. They not only were non-citizens but were mentally unfit for army. He then went down to speak to the men below. The I.B.S. men were moved downstairs. Lee, Moore, Seidenberg, Kaplan,

Solnitsky, Maller, Lehuta[?] came up in their stead. A very fair exchange.

[May 20, 1918] The 2 Koritz and Pentecostal men went to see Capt. Hayes, the Psychologist. Sterenstein returned and told us that the two Koritzs were again declared morons.

[May 24, 1918] The non-com. C.O.s were transferred to the Hosp.

[May 25, 1918] The Pentecostal men and the Koritzs examined by Major Rosonoff. Evan Thomas brought to C.O. barracks. Brother

of Norman Thomas.

[May 27, 1918] Sunday. E.F. and H.L. visited me again. E. informed me that his case had come to the Met.[?] and his name-sake, vice Pres. had ordered Dr. Dublin to canvas [sic] his dept. for more men of these views. Poor Met[?] and wretched Dr. L. again left $20 with me.

[May 28, 1918] Had 9 million anti-typhoid germs injected into my system thru my left arm. Strange to say I neither fainted from the dreaded contact of the needle, nor was I terribly affected

by the disease carrying or preventing microbes. It would have been gratifying tho to have seen Christie in the presence of the heartless doc with the [illegible word] needle. Perhaps he’d pull thru. Evan Thomas delivered an interesting lecture on the German internment camps in England. His talks with them proves that they are imbued with exactly the same dope given to our credulous public. They too are fighting a war of defense and from the general run of arguments I glean that theirs is as logical as any. He also spoke about

the C.O.s in England. They are/were permitted to plead their case before the tribuneals or local boards. They were questioned and the public was permitted to be present and even ask questions at the cross-examination. This gave the movement wide publicity. Everything was open and above board. The sentences at first were very severe. They usually began with a period of solitary confinement. For a time they were sent to the military where they were subjected to frightful


[May 31, 1918] [still at Camp Upton, NY] At 7:15 the four negroes were taken to the base hospital. They returned about 9:30 P.M. and we learned that Cap. Hayes, Maj. Rosenoff, and about 50 other officers questioned them. Some of the questions asked and answers given are as follows. Cap. to Collier – Doesn’t the devil ever get into you and impel you to fight. Ans: No, but the devil is trying to make me fight now. Officer of Curtis. Some Christians have

accepted non-combattant service. Why cannot you? Ans. If I thought I could help the war in any way, I’d get right into it with heart and soul and would try to become a colonel or something. We are having quite an innocent amount of diversion with Solnitzky and his inimitable way of saying sure and other peculiar expressions. Another keen amusement has been Lees arguments with Katz. Lee has formulated ten rules of Katz’s logic. To say the least

they are extraordinary. In the agregate, as my friend Lee would say, they amount to just this. If you want to know exactly what Katz means, take Katz’s statement and convert it to its exact opposite and you have it. If Katz says: Nobody ought read a certain paper it means that everybody ought to read that paper etc. Another favorite saying originated by Rosenberg but since adopted and used to advantage by all is Let’s have a little guilt. Which put me

in mind of one of Curtis’ famous sayings. I called his attention to the Bible Students praying one morning after they had accepted non-com. service. He answered that has about as much effect as Wortsmann’s saying Lets have a little guilt or “Zumer gehen.” Some of Curtis’ favorite sayings are I can’t dispute that. Sure, didn’t you know that. He’s a man.You think so? etc.


Eichel, David, “Diary of David Eichel, 1917,” Conscientious Objection & the Great War: 1914-1920, accessed September 29, 2022, https://cosandgreatwar.swarthmore.edu/items/show/13.

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