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- Biographical Notes
Registered for draft on June 5, 1917, as a C.O.; interviewed by Board of Inquiry on June 19, 1918 at Camp Devens and on Jan. 6, 1919 at Disciplinary Barracks [Ft. Leavenworth]; classed by Board of Inquiry first as 1(?,) later as 6(?); charged with disobedience of orders; originally sentenced to death, sentence changed to 25 years in prison, reduced to 3 years; suspended in shackles by wrists for hours daily for period of two months while in prison; reason for stance = humanitarian, socialist; member of Socialist Party.